The data: URL scheme

Here's something you may not already know: You can include data directly in an (x)html page, instead of referencing it externally.

For example, most of the time when you want to display an image you would write code like this:

<img src="" alt="some random image" />

Web browsers downloading your HTML source will download the text first, then download any external references, including "some_image.png" (assuming the user has not turned off image downloading).However, there are a few cases where you want to distribute an HTML file with images, but don't want to distribute multiple files. In those cases, the 'data:' URL scheme is what you need.

The scheme is documented in the (very readable) RFC2339. Essentially, you can include the binary data straight into your HTML code. The example they give in the RFC looks like this:

<img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODdhMAAwAPAAAAAAAP///ywAAAAAMAAw%20%20%20AAAC8IyPqcvt3wCcDkiLc7C0qwyGHhSWpjQu5yqmCYsapyuvUUlvONmOZtfzgFz%20%20%20ByTB10QgxOR0TqBQejhRNzOfkVJ+5YiUqrXF5Y5lKh/DeuNcP5yLWGsEbtLiOSp%20%20%20a/TPg7JpJHxyendzWTBfX0cxOnKPjgBzi4diinWGdkF8kjdfnycQZXZeYGejmJl%20%20%20ZeGl9i2icVqaNVailT6F5iJ90m6mvuTS4OK05M0vDk0Q4XUtwvKOzrcd3iq9uis%20%20%20F81M1OIcR7lEewwcLp7tuNNkM3uNna3F2JQFo97Vriy/Xl4/f1cf5VWzXyym7PH%20%20%20hhx4dbgYKAAA7" alt="Larry" />

Which equates to this image:


There are many reasons why you wouldn't want to do this - it increases the size of your HTML file, forcing users to download more before they can see whether your content is what they want (especially if the embedded data is near the beginning of the file). There are also some limitations on the size of data and those limitations vary depending on where this technique is used. Still, it's a useful technique that can be used when you need to embed small amounts of binary data within an HTML file and you don't want to distribute multiple files.